Current Research

My work examines prejudice toward marginalized groups, focusing on the interplay between individuals and broad sociocultural systems (e.g., government, media, environment).


Below I describe my two main lines of research.

Perceptions of, and Reactions to, Social Change

In this line of work I investigate how people perceive and respond to changes in social systems (e.g., demographic changes, social movements) in ways that impact attitudes toward marginalized groups. This includes investigation of zero-sum beliefs about racial discrimination, perceptions of outgroup growth and beliefs about immigration, and how prejudice and discrimination can be affected by mass media (e.g., political news media, advertising, video games).

Currently, I am lead editor for a Special Issue at Group Processes and Intergroup Relations on perceptions of, and reactions to, social change.

Open Book

Cross-Regional Comparisons of Prejudice Predictors


In this line of work I investigate interactions between regional factors and individual differences. Through this research, I aim to understand how regional influences (e.g., one's country's government) operate in concert with the minds and experiences of individuals in ways that impact prejudice and discrimination.

For example, I have investigated cross-regional variations in anti-vegetarian attitudes, interactions between country laws and personal contact with LGBT people in predicting support for LGBT rights, and how individual differences interact with regional COVID-19 infection rates to predict prejudice toward ethnic minorities. 


*Earle, M., *Prusaczyk, E., Choma, B., & Calogero, R. (in press). Compliance to COVID-19 safety measures: A test of an objectification theory model. Body Image, 37, 6-13. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2021.01.004 [LINK]
       * shared first authorship


Meleady, R., Hodson, G., & Earle, M. (2021). Person and situation effects in predicting outgroup prejudice and avoidance during the COVID-19 pandemic. Personality and Individual Differences, 172, 110593. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2020.110593 [LINK]


Prusaczyk, E., Earle, M., & Hodson, G. (2021). A brief nudge or education intervention delivered online can increase willingness to order a beef-mushroom burger. Food Quality and Preference, 87, 104045. doi: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2020.104045 [LINK]

Earle, M., Hoffarth, M. R., Prusaczyk, E. MacInnis, C., & Hodson, G. (2020). A multilevel analysis of LGBT rights support across 77 countries: The role of contact and country laws. British Journal of Social Psychology. [LINK]

Earle, M. & Hodson, G. (2020). Questioning white losses and anti-White discrimination in the U.S. Nature Human Behavior, 4, 106-168. doi: 10.1038/s41562-019-0777-1 [LINK]

Hodson, G., Dhont, K., & Earle, M. (2019). Devaluing animals, “animalistic” humans, and people who protect animals. In K. Dhont & G. Hodson (Eds.), Why we love and exploit animals: Bridging insights from academia and advocacy. (pp. 67-89). Abingdon, UK: Routledge. [LINK]

Meleady, R., Crisp, R.J., Hodson, G., & Earle, M. (2019). On the generalization of intergroup contact effects within and beyond intergroup relations. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 28, 430-435. doi: 10.1177/0963721419848682 [LINK]

Earle, M., Hodson, G., Dhont, K., & MacInnis, C. (2019). Eating with our eyes (closed): Effects of visually associating animals with meat on anti-vegan/vegetarian attitudes and meat consumption willingness. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 22, 818-835. doi: 10.1177/1368430219861848 [LINK]

Earle, M., & Hodson, G. (2019). Right-wing adherence and objective numeracy as predictors of minority group size perceptions and size threat reactions. European Journal of Social Psychology, 49, 760-777. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2538 [LINK]

Hodson, G., Crisp, R. J., Meleady, R., & Earle, M. (2018). Intergroup contact as an agent of cognitive liberalization. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13, 523-548. doi: 10.1177/1745691617752324 [LINK]

Hodson, G., & Earle, M. (2018). Conservatism predicts lapses from vegetarian/vegan diets to meat consumption (through lower social justice concerns and social support). Appetite, 120, 75-81. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.027 [LINK]


Earle, M., & Hodson, G. (2017). What’s your beef with vegetarians? Predicting anti-vegetarian prejudice from pro-beef attitudes across cultures. Personality and Individual Differences, 119, 52-55. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2017.06.034 [LINK]

Hodson, G., & Earle, M. (2017). Anti-Semitism. In F.M. Moghaddam (Ed.), The SAGE Encyclopedia of Political Behavior (pp. 28-30). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.  doi: 10.4135/9781483391144.n19 [LINK]


Hodson, G., & Earle, M. (2017). Social identity theory. Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences (Eds. V. Zeigler-Hill & T.K. Shackelford). Springer. [LINK]


Volk, A. A., Della Cioppa, V., Earle, M., & Farrell, A. (2015). Social competition and bullying: An adaptive socio-ecological perspective. In V. Zeigler-Hill, L. Welling, & T. Shackelford (Eds.) Evolutionary Perspectives on Social Psychology. Springer. [LINK]

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