Perceptions of & Reactions to Social Forces

In this line of work I investigate how people perceive and respond to changes in social systems (e.g., demographic changes, social movements).


This includes beliefs about racial discrimination, minority population growth, immigration, pro-environmental behaviors, and how attitudes can be affected by mass media (e.g., political news media, advertising, video games).

Currently, I am also lead editor for a Special Issue at Group Processes and Intergroup Relations on perceptions of, and reactions to, social change.

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“These findings provide insight into psychological processes surrounding perceived minority group size, identifying size threat as especially crucial in understanding intergroup relations."

— Earle & Hodson, European Journal of Social Psychology

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“Overall, improvements for black people do not seem to coincide with disadvantages for white people, and discrimination perceptions differ from reported discrimination experiences.”

Earle & Hodson, Nature Human Behaviour

“Not only is safety anxiety relevant to cautionary behaviors protective against sexual objectification threat, but it also predicts compliance with measures that reduce the risk of contracting COVID-19.”

— Earle, Prusaczyk, Choma, & Calogero, Body Image

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“Nudge and education interventions increased willingness to order beef-mushroom burgers regardless of ideology or meat eating attitudes.”

— Prusaczyk, Earle, & Hodson, Food Quality and Preference

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Cross-Regional  Comparisons

In this line of work I investigate interactions between regional factors and individual differences. Through this research, I aim to understand how regional influences (e.g., one's country's government) operate in concert with the minds and experiences of individuals in ways that impact attitudes and behaviour.

For example, I have investigated cross-regional variations in anti-vegetarian attitudes, interactions between country laws and personal experiences in predicting support for LGBT rights, and how individual differences interact with regional COVID-19 infection rates to predict prejudice toward ethnic minorities. 

“Findings highlight the importance of both individual and contextual factors in predicting support for LGBT communities.”

— Earle, Hoffarth, Prusaczyk, & Hodson, British Journal of Social Psychology

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“We find that pro-beef attitudes are a robust predictor of anti-vegetarian prejudice across cultures, with a particularly strong association in the USA.”

— Earle, & Hodson, Personality and Individual Differences

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Analyzing Data

Additional Publications

More journal articles, magazine articles, book chapters, and encyclopedia entries


Social Identity Theory


Person and Situation Effects in Predicting Outgroup Prejudice and Avoidance during the COVID-19 Pandemic


When Black People Climb, Do White People Fall?


On The Generalization of Intergroup Contact Effects Within and Beyond Intergroup Relations


Devaluing Animals, "Animalistic" Humans, and People Who Protect Animals


Eating With Our Eyes (Closed): Effects Of Visually Associating Animals With Meat On Anti-Vegan/Vegetarian Attitudes and Meat Consumption Willingness


Social Competition and Bullying: An Adaptive Socio-Ecological Perspective


Intergroup Contact as an Agent of Cognitive Liberalization




Conservatism Predicts Lapses From Vegetarian/Vegan Diets to Meat Consumption